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E-Mail: info@richres.com

Phone: (510) 653-4385
Copyright � 1997-2013 Richardson Researches, Inc. All rights reserved.

Course Offering

(Currently there are no course offerings at this time.)

Course Overview

The object of this course is to give a basic understanding of the theoretical principles of confectionery technology. We will do this by practical demonstrations, showing the relationship between some basic confectionery systems, the techniques involved in their preparation and the properties of the principle ingredients.

Course Materials

Text: "Sugar Confectionery and Chocolate Manufacture" by Lees and Jackson

Course Agenda

First Day: 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

  • Properties of the Principle Carbohydrates used in Confectionery
                - Processing:
                - Solubility and Supersaturation of Sucrose
                - Crystallization and the Control of Size
                - Effects of: Agitation, Viscosity, Boiling Time and Temperatures, Effect of Vacuum, pH
                - Methods of Controlling Processes: Thermometric, Boiling Point Elevation, Refractometric - Total Dissolved 
                   Solids, Hardness Test
                - Glass Transition
  • Throughout the course, the following will also be shown or discussed:
          Presence of "Other" Sugars, Water Activity, Colloidal Materials, Syrup-Phase Concentration, Methods of            
​          "seeding", Effect of Enzymes, Two-Phase Systems, and Shelf-Life Problems

  Practical Work:

  • For the first day's work, the above principles will be illustrated by making pulled and clear Hard Candy and deposited and extruded Fondant Creams.
  • Texture and taste differences are illustrated when different ratios of carbohydrates are used in hard candies. 

Second Day: 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

  • Review of previous day's work and discussion of main faults.
  • Jellies, Gums:
                 - Additional Raw Materials: Gelatin, Agar, Pectin, Starch, Gellan 

  Practical Work:

  • Preparation of Starch Jelly
          The effects of different cooking times, levels of starches.
  • Preparation of a Pectin Jelly
          The effects of buffer/acid and pectin in different amounts.
  • Preparation of an Agar Jelly
  • Preparation of Gellan Jellies
  • Preparation of a Gumi-type Jelly will be demonstrated.

Third Day: 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

  • Review of previous day's work and discussion of main faults.
  • Manufacture of Caramels, Fudges and Toffee:
                - Additional Raw Materials: Milk Products, Evaporated Milk, Sweet Condensed Milk, 
                  Milk Powder (including Reconstitution) 

  Practical Work:

  • Preparation of various caramel and fudge formulas.
          The effect of raw material and process variations. These variations include:
          Different sources and levels of milk, Pre-mixing, End cooking temperatures and processing time, 
          Different seeding agents, Use of a Sequestrant

Fourth Day: 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

  • Review of previous day's work and discussion of main faults.
  • Aerated Confections - Marshmallows and Nougat:
                - Additional Raw Materials: Aerating Agents, Egg Albumen, Modified Soya Proteins, Gelatin 

  Practical Work:

  • Preparation of Grained and Ungrained Marshmallows.
  • Preparation of Grained and Ungrained Nougat
          The effect on texture when different levels of aerating agents, carbohydrates and boiling points are used.

Fifth Day: 8:30 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

  • Review of previous day's work and discussion of main faults.
  • Lab Demonstration of:
                - Soft Panned Coating
                - Hard Panned Coating 
  • Final examination 


Confectionery Technology
E-Mail: info@richres.com

Phone: (510) 653-4385
Copyright � 1997-2013 Richardson Researches, Inc. All rights reserved.